This section of systematic review will explore evidence regarding health care professional’s knowledge attitude toward electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Africa. In this review of literature, the aim is to identify, analyse and synthesise information related to the research question thereby ensuring the best available evidence (Polit and Beck 2010; Parahoo 2014). This concurs with Rees (2011) who states the paramount purpose of systematic review is in terms of clinical implementation. However, Pearson and Evans (2001) identified some limitations such as potential reviewer bias and possible subjective issues within the systematic review process. So also, the possibility of risk in reviewer bias is said to be limited when authenticity is considered in terms of transparent appraisal, synthesis, rigour and justification of the available evidence in systematic review (Boland et al. 2014). [Read Full Text]KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS TOWARDS ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY IN AFRICA- A SYSTEMATIC REVIEWNursing2016Download
Code-switching (henceforth CS) in spontaneous speech has been around for millennia, and arguably since the emergence of distinct languages. While communicative strategies of this phenomenon have been well-documented across a variety of languages, little is known about the characteristics of Hausa-English CS. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study aimed at investigating the syntactic structures of CS and its social and pragmatic functions in the speech of Hausa-English bilinguals in Manchester, United Kingdom. First, a review of literature on CS was conducted with a view to providing theoretical foundation for the analysis of the data set. Then, a description of the participants and their linguistic background was provided, along with an explanation on the ethical consideration in the methods section. The naturally occurring data used in this study was collected during informal conversations recorded at locations in different times and analysed based on various available approaches. The findings of this study revealed that switches in Hausa-English do not occur at random; rather they are constrained by set of grammatical rules of both participating languages. The study also revealed that nouns are the most switched items, followed by discourse markers (interjections, particles, fillers & conjunctions), verbs, adverbs, prepositions, pronouns and then determiners. The findings further demonstrated that Hausa-English bilinguals employ CS to enhance their everyday conversational interactions. Additionally, they indicated that CS occurs in the speech of Hausa English bilinguals to serve functions as: reiteration, quotation, clarification, low level of competence in English, lexical gap, grammatical loan and unique referent. It was concluded that insertion (intra-sentential) and alternation (inter-sentential) are the two structural patterns in Hausa-English conversation, triggered by various conversational contexts. The study was both grounded in structural linguistics and sociolinguistics.[Read Full Text]CODE-SWITCHING AMONG HAUSA-ENGLISH BILINGUALS IN MANCHESTER, UNITED KINGDOM: SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES AND PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONSEuropean Languages2016Download
In conventional Half Duplex (HD) systems employing Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC), data are either transmitted on one frequency band and channel feedback is received on another frequency band, at the same time, or data are transmitted in a time slot and channel feedback is received in another time slot, on the same frequency band. But with the introduction of Full Duplex (FD) capability, data and channel feedback can be sent and received at the same time and on the same frequency band. The performance analysis of the integration of AMC in bidirectional FD is the main objective of this project work. In this work, bidirectional communication scenarios for FD and HD were designed and simulated. Throughput performance for all the scenarios were obtained. The throughput gain for perfect and imperfect channel prediction were also obtained and analyzed. It was established, from the obtained results, that FD perform poorly under imperfect conditions (imperfect prediction with residual SelfInterference (SI)) which result in negative gain in throughput. But when SI is completely canceled, FD outperforms HD and the gain in throughput for imperfect prediction is more than that for perfect prediction for all average SNRs.[Read Full Text]Cross-layer Combining of Adaptive Modulation and Coding with Truncated ARQ in Full-duplex SystemsApplied Geophysics 2016Download
Significant studies on drought have been conducted in the study area. However, holistic vulnerability assessment of drought remains an emerging issue as it has been relegated by previous works. This work is aimed at assessing smallholder farmers’ vulnerability to drought in Bungudu, Dange, Dawakin-Tofa and Rimi areas of Northwestern Nigeria. A sixty one year rainfall data (1952-2013) of four stations was subjected to analysis to obtain rainfall trends. Standardized Precipitation Index was generated to compute intensities and durations of drought. Also eighty (80) smallholder farmers aged 40 years and above with not less than twenty years farming experienced were sampled using availability sampling and interviewed to determine their sensitivity and adaptive capacity to drought. Vulnerability Assessment Model developed by UNDP was employed to assess communities’ vulnerability to drought quantitatively. Also Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was conducted in the four localities to assess drought vulnerability qualtatively. The research found that pattern of rainfall was occilating between dry and wet conditions while only Kano station had an increasing (upward) trend from 1952 to 2013. The 1971-1980 and 1981-1990 Africa’s widespread drought did not spare the study area. Quantitatively, the most exposed area to drought is however not the most senstive one. And the most adaptive area is not the least vulnerable. This is due to the high susceptibility to soil erosion observed in the most adaptive (Dawakin-Tofa) that raises its sensitivity. The timeline of severe and extreme droughts persistence agreed by the FGDiscussants largely corroborate the quantitative analysis conducted. The FGD also expounded the impacts of such droughts on livelihoods and environmental resources. It is concluded that farmers’ drought adaptive strategies such as having economic trees and small ruminants and adjusting their feeding habit, may probably be the sources of resilience of farmers in the study areas to drought. It is therefore recommended that these coping/adaptive strategies should be enhanced and be blended with other strategies that are not common in the communities of the study areas such as getting information from NIMET on what and when to plant and evolving a Community Based Storage facility for smallholder farmers.[Read Full Text]VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTING TO DROUGHT BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN DRYLANDS OF NORTH-WESTERN NIGERIAGeography2016Download
ICT centre of the federal University Birnin Kebbi is an IT-based department that is tasked with responsibilities such as monitoring and maintenance of university networks, connectivity, physical and logical infrastructure, training as well as software development and maintenance. These capabilities are often used to be under-provided or under-utilized. IT-based enterprise such as ICT can operate based on good enterprise architecture and transform itself from value added service enterprise to a revenue generating or profit-oriented enterprise. Over the years design and implementation of enterprise architectures have been toward increase efficiency, cost minimization and profit maximization mostly in a product-oriented business where IT is seen as supporting agent. This project seeks to design and implement enterprise architecture using TOGAF framework in the ICT centre of the Federal University Birnin Kebbi. Through the project, it will be presented how enterprise architecture can be designed and implemented in the university system. The project will also help to address the problem being faced by the ICT whereas it is seen in the university as consuming department rather than productive one. The project is limited to the design of Architecture Vision and Business Architecture at the M. Sc. Dissertation level while effort will be made to extend the project to complete design and implementation of enterprise architecture for the ICT even after the dissertation.[Read Full Text]Design of Business Architecture for an ICT departmentComputer Science2016Download
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